‌‌Several billion tonnes of pollutants are produced every day and not all of these are decomposed by microorganisms. Most of those that are not biodegradable are accompanied by toxins that pose a huge threat to the existence of life on earth.

Pollutions occur all day but the negative impact of these pollutants has become a tremendous challenge to humanity for years until in recent decades biotechnology brought up the idea of bioremediation to clear up the pollutants. This process uses biological organisms and their product to degrade toxic pollutants from the environment to maintain a pollutant-free environment that will ensure the survival of organisms.


‌‌Bioremediation is the use of biological agents such as bacteria, fungi and,/or their products (like their enzymes) to remove pollutants from the environment.

The process despises the use of inorganic chemicals but rather extensively relies on organisms and their products to clean up the environment.‌‌However, bioremediation is environmentally friendly since these organisms and their product do not pose any environmental hazard, but rather they are involved in the transformation of toxic to harmless and sometimes useful products to humanity.

Bioremediation can be used to remove and detoxify pesticides, gasoline, sewage, and petroleum from the various biomes of biological importance.‌‌BIOREMEDIATION


The type of bioremediation used is based on the type of biological agent used to catalyze the process to eradicate pollutants. Based on the above description there are three types of bioremediation.‌‌

Microbial bioremediation: involves the use of microorganisms to transform toxins. The process utilizes microorganisms such as bacteria and other microscopic agents to eliminate poisonous substances in the environment. The science behind these is by allowing the microbes to feed on the organic food component f the pollutant and alongside the modification of the toxins.‌‌

Archaea and bacteria are the vastly used microorganism in such a process. Bacterias are heavy metal composers, they have various mechanisms of protection against toxins in metals such as methylation, oxidation, and reduction.‌‌

PHYTOREMEDIATION: Refers to the use of plant and plant products to extract and remove contaminants from the environment. It is mostly employed in the removal of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. During photosynthesis, plants take up nutrients and carbon dioxide which is toxic to animal life. Through this process, the plant absorbs carbon dioxide and reduces the rate of depletion of the ozone layer and global warming.

Mycoremediation: involve the use of fungi to detoxify the environment.‌‌ For example, fungi work by feeding on the organic food in the waste through extracellular digestion. They eject several extracellular enzymes into the substrate, these enzymes then decompose the organic matter such as cellulose and align the material of plants. In bioremediation, the fungi can be modified to produce particular enzymes which target a specific toxin material. The toxin material is decomposed just as in the dead organic matter‌‌.


1. Biological remediation degrades hazardous toxins in pollutants, unlike mechanical recycling which transforms some of these toxic products into another element. Eventually, these toxic will end up polluting the environment a day to come Bioremediation takes care of the toxicity permanently and renders the environment safe.

2. Bioremediation is less expensive as compared to chemical and mechanical recycling. When microns are introduced into a pollutant, they regenerate themselves. They feed and reproduce increasing their population and efficiency. Chemicals have to be introduced over and over again for the same purpose which is cost-intensive.

3. The end products of bioremediation are very safe. the bacteria themselves for a long round pose no effect on the environment. Unlike the chemical method, the chemical used for detoxification is not safe. It only has a reduced environmental impact.‌‌



Bioremediation is limited to those mixtures that are biodegradable. This method is susceptible to sudden and complete degradation. Outputs of biodegradation may be more deadly or toxic than the parent compound in the first environment in the sense that:

1. Bioremediation takes a longer time compared to other treatment options, such as recess and expulsion of soil from contaminated zones.

2. Explicitness

Biological techniques are highly specific. Vital site factors necessary for success include the presence of metabolically capable microbial populations, suitable environmental growth conditions, and applicable levels of nutrients and pollutants.

3. Technical Development

More study is required to develop modern engineered bioremediation technologies that are suitable for sites with composite combinations of contaminants that are not equally distributed in the environment. It may be present as solids, liquids, and gases forms


Bioremediation is a modified form of cycling and detoxification that safe hard the integrity and the very essence of survival of life. It is an improvement over the chemical method of recycling which in itself is a danger in disguise. Bioremediation uses the components of the ecosystem to purify and detoxify unfriendly materials that endanger life. The most used method is microbial bioremediation, this is because microns have a higher reproduction rate. In an hour, thousand of new cells are produced which then continues the cycle of reproduction and detoxification


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