BLOOD GROUP AND BLOOD AGGLUTINATION

FRANCIS DZAMEFE
FRANCIS DZAMEFE

‌Blood is undoubtedly the most important fluid in the body of some living things. The blood houses all the important entities needed to sustain the life of an organism. It is very important to know that not all living things have blood in their body. Plants and other lower-class organisms like amoeba and paramecium lucks blood in their bod. The blood in a conductive tissue that is perfect at its works, that is transporting materials in the body. Almost everything in the body of the higher class animals is transported through the blood cells, digested food nutrients, blood proteins and a whole lot of vital things.

‌‌WHAT IS THE BLOOD MADE OF?

Blood is a specialized body fluid that lies confined in an interconnected system of vessels called blood vessels that transport substances to cells and tissues. It has the four most important components: plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Blood has many different functions including‌‌ circulating oxygen and nutrient throughout the body.‌‌ It prevents excessive bleeding by clotting when there is a cut.‌‌ The blood contains white blood cells and antibodies that help fight infection.‌‌ The blood removes waste products from the other body, which is then filtered by the kidney.‌ It regulates body temperature‌ and also aids in the erection of the penis during sex or whenever the need arises.‌‌ The blood moves through a system of tubes called blood vessels. The blood that runs through these vessels is often referred to as whole blood. This is because it contains 55% plasma and 45% blood cells. The blood accounts for about 7-10% of our total body weight. The average quantity of blood varies with gender. It is about 5.6 litres in males and 4.5 litres in females.

‌‌THE BLOOD CELLS

There are three main blood cells found in body organisms. These are the red, white blood cells and the platelets, each of which is distinct in their nature, composition and function. The red blood cell carries gasses throughout the body. The white blood cells are the bodies army that fights against infections and disease-causing organisms. The platelets on the other hand land help in blood clotting.

‌‌BLOOD PLASM

The blood is made up of solid blood cells and liquid plasma which account for most of the blood's volume. The plasma is made up of water, protein, sugar and fat all in a definite proportion. The plasma is a supportive medium for the blood cells and other components. The plasma is responsible for transporting water, salt, nutrient, waste substances, blood cells, hormones, blood protein and a whole lot more. It constitutes most portions of the blood about 45% of the blood.

‌‌BLOOD PLATELETS‌‌         ‌

The blood platelet is not fully regarded as a blood cell but rather a cell fragment. Platelets help in blood clotting. They do so by forming a sticky merch at the exposed area whenever you have a cut on your body. This leads to the formation of fibrin which covers the wound and prevents breeding. Fibrin forms the initial surface structure upon which new skin tissues are formed, thus promoting healing. ‌‌When platelets become too much in the body, it causes unnecessary clotting. This condition may lead to strokes and heart attacks. However, thanks to the tremendous advances made in antiplatelet treatments, which has led to the production of platelets in preventing these unforeseen fatal events. On the other hand, if your platelet is below the normal count it can lead to excessive bleeding and eventually death.

‌‌THE COLOUR OF THE BLOOD      ‌

‌‌Do you know that the blood in all organisms is not of the same colour? Most people think that the colour of the blood is red in all organisms. No no, the colour of the blood is not always red. The blood of an animal can be red, blue, green or purple. The colour variation is a result of the type of blood protein that carries oxygen in the blood of the organism. In organisms that have red blood such as humans, goats and all animals with red blood, it is as a result of the iron mineral found in the blood. These bind with oxygen in the blood to give out the red colour we see in the blood. The same mechanism works for all the other blood colours except that the mineral component that binds with oxygen is different. The blue blood in some organisms is because of copper in their blood etc. Ageing can also the colour of an organism.

‌‌BLOOD AGGLUTINATION‌‌

Bood agglutination is the formation of clumps of cells or inert bio-particles by specific antibodies inside blood vessels. Erythrocytes are prone to agglutination by non-antibody substances such as plant proteins, viruses, salts of heavy metals, inorganic colloidal acids and bases, and basic proteins particles (protamines, histones). Agglutination inhibits the proper flow of blood in the blood vessels, and also prevent certain bio-molecules from reacting to form useful products.‌‌ The ABO blood grouping, consist of four blood types distinguished by the presence of two antigens (  antigen A and anti B). Both are glycoproteins. People whose blood have A antigens have blood group A and those whose blood has antigens B have blood group B determined.‌‌

RH BLOOD GROUPS

The Rh blood group is named according to the presence or absence of the Rh factor in the blood. This is the rhesus factor which was first discovered in a type of primate monkey known as rhesus monkeys. These monkeys are often used in research works because of their close similarity with human blood. Over the years, a lot of such factors has been discovered but only one is of high importance. Humans with the Rh antigen present in their blood are about 85 %, hence are described as Rh positive (Rh+). The absence of the Rh factor means the individual is Rh-negative (Rh−) which are about 15 % of the human population. Note that the Rh further groups the ABO blood group into eight groups, no matter the individual's ABO blood type. Positive or negative is added to the ABO type to identify whether or not Rh is present. For example, A positive (O+) means ABO group O blood with the Rh antigen present, and AB negative (O−) means ABO group O blood without the Rh antigen.‌‌Agglutination

What does agglutination mean? It generally refers to the process of sticking together or the adhesion of small particles, especially those suspended in a solution. But what is agglutination in biology? Biological agglutination is the clumping of cells as aided by agglutinins. Agglutinins are substances in the blood that induce agglutination. Examples of agglutinins are antibodies and lectins‌‌In microbiology and immunology, the term particularly refers to the bacterial cells that clump in the presence of an antibody. It may also refer to the foreign particles agglutinationand cells that clump to prevent them from interfering with the normal physiological processes of the body. Agglutination is, therefore, a vital immune response of the body.‌‌Understanding the process of agglutination is crucial because of its medical implications. For instance, an individual needing a blood transfusion should not be given the wrong blood group. Otherwise, the result will be the clumping of blood cells, which can be fatal to the recipient

CONCLUSION

The blood is the number one conductive tissue that connects most of the body through a well-structured system of interconnected blood vessels. It transports most of the essential materials needed for life. The blood transport material such as oxygen, water, food nutrients, blood protein and hormones. When not properly handled, the blood may lead to serious complications in the attempt to save a life. Agglutination is mostly a result of errors in blood compatibility. The proper screening process must be carefully employed so that in the thirst to save a life we don't endanger lives rather.‌‌

REFERENCE‌‌

1.https://www.biologyonline.com › ag...Agglutination Definition and Examples - BBiology-OnlineDictionary‌‌

2.https://www.britannica.com › science the importance of antigens and antibodies - blood group - Britannica‌‌

3.https://www.medicine.mcgill.ca › vlabBlood cell indices - Blood typing - the ABO system

Biology

FRANCIS DZAMEFE

I AM A GUY WHO BELIEVES IN SUCCESS IN TERRIFYING AND HOPELESS SITUATIONS IN LIFE. NOT GIVEN UP IS MY NATURE AND THE FUTURE IS MY ASSURANCE.