Everyone has their own story that could make colds run up your crest and tears gather in your eyes but this story is worth informing. Akosua lives in a remote part of the northern region. Although she is a teenager happily married to a man who best fits in a position to be her father, she was pregnant for him. The newly couple awaits their firstborn while they prepared for the traditional rite of welcoming the baby into the clan. Lo and behold Akosua gave birth to a bouncy baby boy but unfortunately, he was having a disorder called trisomy 13 syndromes. The situation looks weird to the household and they started giving it inscriptions that suit their knowledge. They finalize on isolating the newborn baby and his mother since they are cursed by their ancestors. Society mocks them, family hated them, and husband disowned them. However, the question remains unanswered " are syndromic babies anathemas? Let's discover the answer together as we delve into the origin of child syndrome.
WHAT CHILD SYNDROME IS.
Child syndrome in simple terms is a genetic condition that influences the development of organs such as the brain, lung, heart, and kidney. It is characterized by huge patches of the undeveloped membrane that are inflamed. Life can be a risky road to wander without a proper awareness of the treatment plan when your child has a genetic condition. Why am l saying this? People are quick to criticize mothers with children with disorders because they believe children are cropped up by the mothers forgetting that children inherit half of their genetic information from their mother and the other half from their father. Besides, genes determine what features an individual inherits from his or her parents such as hair stain, blood type, eyeshade, and other traits, including chances of developing certain diseases. A genetic syndrome is a result of certain changes in genes or chromosomes. It could be one gene missing or extra chromosomes present which is known as mutation. So you see, there are roots of every disorder so let us not be quick to judge. Anyway, since we have found out the backbone of the syndrome to be mutation, why not delve into how it happens.
MUTATION, THE ORIGIN OF CHILD SYNDROME.
The mutation is a sudden change in the genetic material not caused by genetic recombination. For a better understanding of the topic, let's look at the meaning of languages before proceeding.
Genetic recombination- is the exchange of genetic material between distinct individuals which leads to the creation of children with combination qualities that vary from those found in parents.
A chromosome- is a thread-like structure that originates in the core of a cell which is made up of DNA.
Gene- is a portion of DNA that contains a particular set of instructions for a specific molecule and is located on a chromosome.
DNA- is an abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid and is the hereditary material in humans that makes you different.
As stated previously, the mutation is not caused by genetic recombination that means it is caused by natural exposure of an organism to certain environmental factors such as temperature, ultraviolet light, and chemical carcinogens from the activities of smoking and consuming sugary drinks or non-diet soda. But note that, the rate of all chemical reactions is influenced by temperature. So, the rate of mutation is increased due to an increase in temperature. Again, temperature possibly affects both the thermal vitality of DNA and the rate of reaction of other materials with DNA. With this in mind, mutations can occur in several phases including the genome, gene, and chromosome. To clarify, the genome is simply the total number of an organism's DNA. So, genome mutation is the changes in the chromosome number of the entire genome. whereas chromosomal mutation is the gains and losses of chromosome number and the exchanges, inversion, translocation, and deletions of chromosome structure
Lastly, gene mutation is the change in one or more genes. It typically affects multiple genes. And multiple genes are genes that affect the outcome of a single character.
HOW CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATION LEADS TO TRISOMY 13 SYNDROME.
Chromosome aberrations are any deviation from the normal size, number, and shape of chromosomes in a person's body. However, chromosome aberration is categorized into the following.
Deletion- this is the loss of a region of a chromosome.
Duplication- is a region of a chromosome that repeats itself by an abnormal event.
Translocation- is the merging of regions of two, unlike chromosomes.
Inversion-This is a rearrangement of a chromosome in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches in the overturn way. It is divided into pericentric which is the inversion about the centromere and parametric which involves the centromere.However, the centromere is a structure in a chromosome that holds together the two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome.
And aneuploidy is any chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number(which is 23). Examples of aneuploidy are monosomy, polysomy, and trisomy.
HOW TRISOMY 13 OCCUR IN THE CELL.
Trisomy 13 occurs due to the aneuploidies of the sex chromosomes. However, trisomy 13 is an inborn syndrome that your infant gets when he or she has an extra 13th chromosome. That is to say, they have 3 duplicates of their chromosome 13 instead of having only two. Expressly, it comes about when cells split abnormally during reproduction, and develop more congenital material on chromosome 13. The additional chromosome can attain from either the sperm or egg. The additional 13th chromosome causes drastic bodily and mental discomforts. Nevertheless, two kinds of trisomy13 determine whether or not the baby is going to live past the first month or survive for years. Babies with 3 copies of chromosome number 13 in all their cells have a low rate of living beyond months while babies with chromosome number 13 in only some of their cells have a higher probability of surviving. The symptoms rely on how many cells have the additional chromosome. But what has kept me thinking is the fact that the chances a woman will give birth to a baby with any chromosome abnormalities rises after age 35. So, how did Akosua gave birth to a baby with trisomy 13? Hum, let's draw the line between age and aneuploidy to clear our qualms.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE AND ANEUPLOIDY.
Older mothers are more likely to produce aneuploidy eggs. This is because a woman's eggs become less fertile as she ages. Women are born with all of their eggs already in their ovaries and the eggs start to mature during adolescence. So, as the woman surpasses the age of 33, chromosomes in the egg are likely to split up inappropriately leading to the egg having an additional chromosome that creates trisomy 13, 18,21, and more due to meiotic non-disjunction during Oocyte maturation.
According to the graph above, we can see that the more an individual age increases the higher the rate of producing babies with genetic disorders.Moreover, babies born with trisomy 13 often have intense birth weight. They mostly have brain-structure issues which can impact their facial growth. Most times, these babies possess undeveloped nostrils and palate.
The following table reveals some human conditions caused by mutation.
In a nutshell, the story of Akosua reveals to us another way genetic syndrome occurs. It doesn't necessarily have to do with the old ages of mothers. Somewhat, exposure to certain environmental factors can cause it as it happens to Akosua. And most importantly, syndromic babies are not cursed by anyone. It is just a genetic disorder that can happen to anybody.
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