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NATURAL SELECTION

FRANCIS DZAMEFE
FRANCIS DZAMEFE

The existence of every living thing on earth is dependent on a lot of factors. These factors are natural or artificial. When these pressures (factors) act on a population of living things, it favours some members and intentionally or unintentionally acts against a section of the pollution. Those that survive a particular pressure are the lucky ones who live to face another challenge in the future. This process will continue as long as life perpetually exist.

As individuals overcome challenges they develop certain structural, development and psychological features that make them better adapted to the current environment, theses features arise because the environment is in demand of it and if you do not have them you will go extinct. In this case, if the factor that facilitates the selection process, is a natural phenomenon we term it natural selection. That is nature factors selecting among individuals of a group.

NATURAL SELECTION

Natural selection is a situation in which natural occurrences act in a way that favours the existence of some members of a population and promotes them to the best adaptive status and eliminates those who are not fit.

The concept of natural selection was proposed by CHARLES DARWIN in his theory of the evolution of living organisms. In this theory, he talked about how natural phenomena can create diversity in a population by either creating diversity in the genotype or the phenotype. This diversity created might cause a particular section of a population to be susceptible to unfavourable occurrences.

EXAMPLES OF NATURAL SELECTION

There are a lot of examples where nature selects those who deserve to be in the next generation. Some of these examples include.

1. Disease pressure: When there is an outbreak of a new disease or infirmity that do not have a cure, nature act in a way that selects the best-fit individual in terms of immune fitness and act against those with a weak immune system. These individuals are those having resistance. When tuberculosis first came it killed a lot of people, those whose respiratory system is strong in terms of immunity survived it hence lived after its first outbreak. The same way coronavirus is killing those with weaker immune systems. This will continue until treatment is found for it. Those who will survive corona will develop immunity against it and this can be inherited

2. Disaster pressure: In this case when natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes and the like occur and eliminate a selection of the population and those that are likely to survive are those that will be seen in the next generation. Examples assuming earthquakes occur in a particular geographical area and destroyed 90% of the population. The 10% are those that nature has the selection to reproduce in the next generation.

3 When the genetic makeup of some individuals makes it difficult for them to fit into the present society. For example, those with sickle cell anaemia are prone to sickness with weaker immune systems, these make it difficult for the body to fight diseases and infection. They are easy to be selected against in times of chronic disease outbreak. Nature itself will reduce their population in that hammer.

TYPES OF NATURAL SELECTION

1.Directional natural selection:This is a type of natural selection in which environmental pressures act in such as way that it favours one section of the population and act against all others. Only one of the extreme genotypes or phenotypes of a population are favoured. For example, the long neck giraffe ware is favoured during scarcity of diet during their evolution.

2.Stabilising natural selection: This is a type of natural selection in which environmental pressures act in a way that they eliminate the two extremes. The intermediates of the population are favoured and survive the environmental challenge. For example, in a population of trees, we have the short ones, the tall and the intermediates. Those that are tail are likely to be destroyed by wind. Those that are short may not receive the right amount of sunlight for photosynthesis, the intermediates may have the chance to escape the wind and also have the right amount of sunlight for photosynthesis.

3.Disruptive natural selection:This is a type of natural selection in which environmental pressures in nature act to eliminate members with intermediate characters and favours those with extreme features, either extremely low or extremely high.

4. Sexual selection This is a type of natural selection in which the environment act to ensure the reproductive continuity of some members thereby eliminating those not that are not fit or inferior in terms of reproductive structures. For example in humans, ladies generally like guys that are handsome, thick and averages tails. When it comes to reproduction guys with the above features will easily get married or get sex partners. On the other hand, those that do not have these features are may not reproduce or get a sex partner. In this way, they are eliminated from the system genetically and physically when they die. Therefore the handsome guys are selected naturally by sexual selection. The same way guys like girls that are beautiful and with curved bodies

IMPORTANCE OF NATIONAL SELECTION

Natural selection according to a scientist is a way that nature itself discriminate among individuals of a population. It's effect affect all living thing on earth form all types of plants species to animals and even microns are not left out of the merits and demerits of natures own selection steam. Examples of this importance are:

1. It ensures that every species is represented by only individuals that are the best fit.

2. It makes individuals well adapted to the environment where they live.

3) It also makes the survival explore new ways of adapting to the existing environment

4) It promotes technological development, as human beings are on their toes to "fight" the next outbreak (disease or natural disasters)

5) it helps the existing population to better manage external shocks.

CONCLUSION

Aside from the chance of surviving in society through one's effort or intelligence, there is also a probability that you may or may not be favoured by natural selection. Nature has its way of making sure those who are alive are fit and good looking so they can bring forth the next generation. these surviving individuals are genetically well packaged to be able to pass on characters that they have to acquire as a result of the challenges that came their way throughout their lifetime. Also, the chance of surviving is not the same for everybody. Wealth, location, technological development, and smartness in life can also influence the chance of survival during the natural selection process.

References

  1. Lambda stories. The basic concept of natural selection. Retrieved from https://lambdastories.com/scientific-perspective-of-the-origin-of-life-and-evaluation/

2. Natural selection - Biology Online Dictionary. The biological concept of selection. Retrieved from https://www.biologyonline.com

3. Understanding Natural Selection: Essential Concepts and Common ... Relevant of natural selection and types evolution.

FRANCIS DZAMEFE

Dzamefe Francis is a native of Peki Tsame and a resident of Adidome. I am a past student and contestant of NSMQ for SMASCO and currently a level 200 student at UDS offering BIOTECH