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THE 10 MOST ESSENTIAL CELLS IN THE HUMAN BODY

ASANTEWAA BEATRICE
ASANTEWAA BEATRICE

Why are cells the basic unit of life but not atoms? To a larger extent, you can say atoms are the basic unit of life. Just that it doesn't make sense to say non-living stuff is made up of living stuff. Let simplify it for better understanding, the human body is a bunch of things enclosed in the skin. They comprise nerve cells, muscle cells, bone cells, and others. All those cells are made of proteins, water, and other things that are types of molecules. And, molecules are collections of atoms. So we are made up of cells and cells are made up of atoms.  So, it is correct to say the body is made up of atoms and it is appropriate to say it's made of cells too. But, this article focuses on Only ten major cells out of the trillion cells in the human body.

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF CELLS.‌‌

Cells are the basic and structural units of all living organisms. They consist of tissues, tissues that makeup organs form organ systems, and organ systems work together to build an organism.

THE  TEN MOST ESSENTIAL CELLS IN THE BODY.

STEM CELLS.‌‌

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can tell apart into specialized cells and can divide through mutations to generate more healthy stem cells. Stem cells are universal and mother cells that have the potential to become any type of cell in the body and can keep renewing themselves. However, whenever a stem cell splits up, each new cell has the ability either to remain a stem cell or become another sort of cell with more specific functions. Most importantly, scientists believe that stem cells can be used to understand and treat diseases, grow new cells to replace damaged organs, and can be used to trace the root causes of genetic deficiencies in cells.

BLOOD CELLS.‌‌

A normal human grown-up has more than 5 liters of blood in the body. Blood transmits oxygen and nutrients to living cells and carries off the waste products. It provides resistant cells to fight infections and platelets that form damaged blood vessels to avoid blood loss.‌‌Blood cells are generated by the bone marrow. There are three major types of cells in the blood that is red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. In addition, the red blood cells are responsible for transmitting oxygen. White blood cells are protected cells that eliminate pathogens and provide immunity. Platelets help in blood clotting to prevent excessive blood loss due to damaged blood vessels.

SKIN CELLS.‌‌

Skin cells are cells making up the skin. The skin is made up of three layers known as the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis.‌‌

Epidermis: The epidermis is the thin outer layer of the skin. It consists of three types of cells as follows:

Squamous cells. Which is the outermost layer that is constantly peeling‌‌.‌‌

Basal cells. Basal cells are found just beneath the squamous cells.

Melanocytes. Melanocytes are also found at the base of the epidermis and it gives the skin its color. that is, they generate melanin‌‌.

Dermis: The dermis is the middle layer of the skin. They contain Blood vessels, Lymph vessels, Hair follicles, Sweat glands, and Collagen bundles. Dermis gives skin flexibility and strength. And it also restricts sensory receptors.‌‌

Hypodermis: hypodermis is the deepest skin layer and it helps maintain the body's heat and conserves the body from harm by working as a shock absorber.

NERVE CELLS.‌‌

nerve cells are the most basic unit of the nervous system. Nerves transmit signals between the brain, spinal cord, and other body organs through nerve impulses. Structurally, a neuron consists of a cell body and nerve processes. The central cell body contains the neuron's nucleus, associated cytoplasm, and organelles. Nerve portray finger-like" projections with axons and dendrites extending from the cell body and transmit signals.

SEX CELLS.

Sex cells are reproductive cells developed in male and female sex organs that bring new offspring into living. Male sex cells are motile and have long, tail-like projections called flagella. Female sex cells are non-motile and somewhat large in comparison to male gametes. In sexual reproduction, sex cells are fuse during fertilization to form a new individual. While other body cells reproduce by mitosis.‌

6. FAT CELLS.‌‌

Fat cells, also called adipocytes, are an important cell component of adipose tissue. Adipocytes include droplets of packed fat that can be used for energy. When fat is compiled, its cells become round and swollen. However, when is used, its cells shrink. Adipose cells also have a significant endocrine function: they generate hormones that affect sex hormone metabolism, blood pressure restriction, insulin sensitivity, blood clotting, and cell signaling.

7. MUSCLE CELL

Muscle cells form muscle tissue, which facilitates all bodily movement. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscle tissue tightens bones to facilitates voluntary movement. These muscle cells are surrounded by connective tissue, which maintains and supports muscle fibers.

Likewise,

Cardiac muscle cells form muscle that doesn't require deliberate effort to operate. These cells aid in heart constriction that allows for a heartbeat

Smooth muscle is an involuntary muscle that layers body cavities and forms the walls of many organs such as kidneys, intestines, blood vessels, and lung airways.‌‌

8. BONE CELLS.‌‌

Bones are a type of connective tissue that comprise a major component of the skeletal system. Bones are made up of a matrix of collagen and calcium phosphate minerals. There are three main types of bone cells in the body: osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes.

Osteoclasts are large multinuclear cells associated with resorption and assimilation while they heal.

Osteoblasts regulate the bone and produce osteoid, an organic substance of the bone matrix, which mineralizes to form bone. Osteoblasts mature to form osteocytes.

Osteocytes aid in the formation of bone and help maintain calcium balance.‌‌

9. PANCREATIC CELLS.‌‌

The pancreas functions as both an exocrine and endocrine organ, meaning that it releases hormones both through ducts and directly into other organs. Pancreatic cells are important for regulating blood glucose concentration levels as well as for the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. On the other hand,

Exocrine cells, which are developed by the pancreas, secrete digestive enzymes that are transported by ducts to the small intestine. However, a very small percentage of pancreatic cells secrete hormones into cells and tissues. Pancreatic endocrine cells are produced by insulin, glucagon, and gastrin.‌‌

10. ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.‌‌

Endothelial cells form the inner lining of the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system structures. They make up the inner layer of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and organs including the brain, lungs, skin, and heart. Endothelial cells are responsible for the creation of new blood vessels. They also regulate the movement of macromolecules, gases, and fluid between the blood and surrounding tissues as well as help manage blood pressure.

‌‌In conclusion, Cells have many parts, each with a different function. Some of these parts, called organelles, are specialized structures that perform certain tasks within the cell. Larison Cudmore once said,  "Every living thing is made of cells, and everything a living thing does is done by the cells that make it up".

REFERENCES

"Types of cells in the human body: Histology | Kenhub" Retrieved from https://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/types-of-cells-in-the-human-body

"11 Different Types of Cells in the Human Body" Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/types-of-cells-in-the-body-373388

ASANTEWAA BEATRICE

I am an artless lady who seeks to improve the health care of children in deprived areas with little knowledge l have. I love to write, motivate, and inspire people with academic challenges.